We obtain new connections between permutation patterns and singularities of Schubert varieties, by giving a new characterization of Gorenstein varieties in terms of so called bivincular patterns. These are generalizations of classical patterns where conditions are placed on the location of an occurrence in a permutation, as well as on the values in the occurrence. This clarifies what happens when the requirement of smoothness is weakened to factoriality and further to Gorensteinness, extending work of Bousquet-Melou and Butler (2007), and Woo and Yong (2006). We also show how mesh patterns, introduced by Branden and Claesson (2011), subsume many other types of patterns and define an extension of them called marked mesh patterns. We use these new patterns to further simplify the description of Gorenstein Schubert varieties and give a new description of Schubert varieties that are defined by inclusions, introduced by Gasharov and Reiner (2002). We also give a description of 123-hexagon avoiding permutations, introduced by Billey and Warrington (2001), Dumont permutations and cycles in terms of marked mesh patterns.
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